Friday, 15 May 2015

Racing Animal Mummies at the Louvre

Or are they running from the embalmers? Maybe they were scared by the recent animal mummies documentary on BBC2...


Tuesday, 5 May 2015

Divine Aromas: Perfume in Ancient Egypt

If you'd been present on Luxor's West Bank in roughly 1500 BC your eyes would have been met with an unusual site, at least for a non ancient Egyptian. There, in the presence of her magnificent memorial temple (today known as Deir el-Bahri), you'd have seen queen turned king Maatkare Hatshepsut running around in circles, gripping two grain measures in her hands. Her courtiers and priests, more used to extravagant meals than exercise, follow closely in her wake, kicking up dust as they try to keep up.

As she runs, her skin glistens in the intense sunlight, its rays causing the fine perfumed unguent - rubbed onto her skin before the ceremony - to shimmer and sparkle like clear water on a crisp summer's morning.

Those in attendance cheer her, adoring her majesty with all their hearts, and none more vehemently than the Overseer of the Gold and Silver House, Senemiah. Although trying his best to keep focused on the solemn rituals being performed right before his eyes, however, Senemiah cannot help but get lost in his own sense of achievement; after all, he had been the one to choose the oils that now glistened so captivatingly on the queen's skin and smelled so sweet in the air as she passed. He had given the instructions to the royal workshops and he had personally ensured its quality. Now, his precious unguent allowed the king to take on the characteristics of a god. It transformed her, and transfixed the court. Without his hard work, the ritual would have been an ineffective waste of time.  

Divine Scent

To the ancient Egyptians, a pleasing scent was not simply a handy way to conceal a bad odor, it was a way of communing with the divine; this can be seen in the ancient word for incense, senetjer, which literally means 'to cause to be divine'. Indeed, the aroma of myrrh and frankincense was the smell of the gods, it came out in their sweat, and was sourced by the ancient Egyptians in the land of Punt, also known as 'God's Land'.

In the divine birth scenes, carved into the walls of Hatshepsut's memorial temple at Deir el-Bahri, and at Luxor Temple under Amenhotep III, the reigning queen is visited during the night by the god Amun, who has taken the form of her husband, the king. She immediately recognizes that all is not as it seems, however, because (and this is not to say that the pharaohs smelled bad) her husband has a divine, pleasant odor: he smells like the land of Punt.

Hatshepsut was also responsible for providing Amun, her divine father, with fresh supplies of myrrh and frankincense from Punt. This was not a straightforward task. During the Second Intermediate Period, when political unity fragmented and Egypt's trade with its neighbors stalled, contact with the land of Punt was severed, breaking a connection that had existed since the Old Kingdom. In the New Kingdom, to gather fresh supplies, trading relations had to be re-established. So, at Amun's command, Hatshepsut had grand ships built, which were sent sailing south along the Red Sea towards Punt.

Happily, the mission was a success, and the many exotic goods brought back to Egypt were offered to Amun, including myrrh or frankincense trees (it is not clear from the depictions); the god now had his own private supply.

It was not only kings and gods that admired pleasing aromas, the Egyptian elite also reveled in beautiful smells at the grand banquets held in the grounds of their villas. As guests entered the banqueting tent, servants rubbed sweet smelling oils onto their skin and placed a cone of unguent upon their wigs; this cone, presumably a solid mass of fat, slowly melted into the wig over the course of the evening. Large vessels of solid unguent were also placed around the banqueting area, releasing their scent into the air over the course of the evening.  

Making Perfume

When manufacturing their perfumes, the ancient Egyptians had access to numerous flowers, such as the white lily and lotus, fragrant woods, plants, and imported goods, such as jasmine from India. Little is known about the cultivation of flowers and plants used for perfume production, though individuals, known from later in Egyptian history, held particular offices in the Temple of Karnak associated with perfume, such as the cultivator of lotus flowers and the chief perfumer.

Once gathered, the flowers, woods, or plants were taken and placed in oil - derived from moringa, balanos, castor seeds, linseed, sesame, safflower, olive or almond - which allowed the essential fragrant essence to be released. The resulting mixture was then placed into a cloth bag, which was twisted and wrung, until all the aromatic essence had dripped from the linen into a container below.

Alternatively, the flower, plant or fragrant wood could be boiled in water and oil, with the oil then being skimmed off the top. It was also possible to trample plants to release their essence. Whatever the case, the extract was then sealed in a calcite vessel and transported to a workshop; there, armed with extracts of all kinds, the master perfumer combined his ingredients to create a perfume.

When combining his sweet-smelling extracts, the perfumer placed them, one by one, into a large heated cauldron, mixing them with oil. Evidence for this can be found in the tomb of Kenamun, from the reign of Amenhotep II, where a scene depicts three men standing around a large cauldron; here, one man prepares the perfume's ingredients, one stirs the pot, and another pours an extra ingredient into the mix from a small vial. Heating and mixing was a complex process, with each ingredient having to be added at exactly the right moment, when the temperature was correct, and in just the right quantity. Apparently, when mixing the perfume, the last ingredient added was always the most pungent.

Storing Perfume

Once the perfume had been produced, it had to be stored. Perfume vessels were traditionally made from calcite, a soft, easy to carve stone sometimes referred to as Egyptian alabaster or travertine, which the Egyptians quarried at Hatnub, just south of Tell el-Amarna in Middle Egypt. This was chosen because it was far less porous than ceramic vessels, and so less likely to leak its expensive, precious contents. The Egyptians also prized calcite for its aesthetic qualities: this naturally pale yellow-white stone, when finely carved, appeared translucent, allowing an ethereal glow to shine through it. They also found its natural banding of grey and black an attractive quality. From the New Kingdom, perfume vessels were also made from glass; these are often quite rich in color, showing shades of blue, white, and orange. Others were made from faience. 

Over the course of Egyptian history, perfume vessels were manufactured in various shapes and sizes, including in the form of animals, such as monkeys and trussed ducks. Perhaps the most elaborate examples known, however, were discovered in the tomb of Tutankhamun. One, a lion-shaped vessel, with its right arm raised and its left arm resting on the sa-symbol of protection, has gilded eyes and a mane incised directly into the stone. The lion's teeth and tongue are carved from ivory and painted red, while its floral crown served as the vessel's lid.

Another of Tutankhamun's elaborate perfume vessels was carved in the shape of the hieroglyphic symbol sema meaning 'union'. Two fecundity figures flank the symbol, gripping it by their hands, one holding onto a papyrus plant, representing Lower Egypt, and the other a lotus, symbolizing Upper Egypt. These symbols, representing the unity of Egypt's north and south, are surmounted by rearing cobras. Both figures and the sema-shaped vessel stand upon a base, where vultures, carved from the stone, flank the cartouche of Tutankhamun, their wings outstretched in a gesture of protection. The whole is made from four separate pieces of carved calcite, perfectly fitted together.

Originally published in Al-Rawi: Egypt's Heritage Review, issue 6 (2014).

Monday, 30 March 2015

Stone-age Italians Defleshed their Dead

Not Egyptology-related, but I've recently published an article for Science Magazine's online news about the first clear evidence for the defleshing of the dead in a European context... You can read all about it here: Neolithic Italians Defleshed their Dead

Tuesday, 17 March 2015

Better Digs for Liverpool's Mummies

From my latest article for The Art Newspaper.

Liverpool’s mummies are about to get a space to call their own. Thanks to a £300,000 government grant, the city’s World Museum is set to expand its galleries dedicated to ancient Egypt to include a “mummy room”, as well as an animated Book of the Dead.

To read more, click here... 

Wednesday, 4 February 2015

Sinai antiquities museum damaged in terrorist attack

From my latest article for The Art Newspaper:

The Al-Arish Museum in the north of Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula was severely damaged last week during simultaneous terrorist attacks across the region that left 30 people dead and at least 60 others injured.

To read more, click here...

Friday, 9 January 2015

Exploring the Dakhla Oasis

The Temple of Deir el-Haggar
Timeless Travels Magazine has posted on their website a large portion of my recent article about my travels around Dakhla Oasis ( I've reposted the excerpt below, and if you want to read the remaining sections, download issue 2 of the magazine for free from:

It was dawn when I left the White Desert for Farafra. The rising sun had already revealed the petrified zoo of chickens, horses, and sphinxes that had commanded my attention the previous evening. Eroding limestone giants, stretched and unfolded themselves for the new day. The desert foxes, gaunt-faced and curious, had long since scurried away, fed, if not full, from scraps of bread offered by Saleh, my driver. White, jagged splats of limestone appeared like frozen waves upon a yellow ocean. The air was crisp.

A short drive later and I was in Farafra, a half-finished vision of a Wild West outpost, where Saleh, paid and pleased, dropped me off and departed back for Bahariya Oasis, performing an illegal-in-forty-countries U-turn in the process. There, following true Western movie convention, as a stranger in an unfamiliar town, I was immediately picked up by the local police and questioned on my reasons for being in the oasis; more importantly, they wanted to know when I'd be leaving and suggested that I take the 2pm bus.

I had no real problem with this, as I'd planned on taking public transport for the next leg of my journey anyway, but soon after, over Turkish coffee in a local cafe, I was invited by two sporty Spanish honeymooners and their rotund guide, Mohammed, to join them on their whirlwind tour of the oases. After all, we were heading in the same direction: Dakhla Oasis, the third oasis on my trip through the Western Desert, where a variety of ancient sites neatly illustrate Egypt's long history with these isolated Saharan islands.

Accompanying my travels in digital form was the 1822 travel narrative of Archibald Edmonstone, the first European to visit Dakhla in modern times, who coincidentally was born on the same London street that the British Museum still stands. Edmonstone, a wealthy baronet, arrived in Egypt in late 1818, aged 23, with the intention of exploring the oases as “objects of curiosity” and to look for “old buildings.” A true Brit, he also wanted to get there before the French consul and Dick Dastardly-alike Bernardino Drovetti, who was busy hoovering up as many artefacts and accolades as he could for himself (and France, of course). Informed that Drovetti had set out for the oases a few days before him, Edmonstone decided to cross the desert directly to Dakhla, rather than take the safe route to Kharga first, as Drovetti had done. This was risky for two reasons: 1) it would mean a longer trek through the desert, and 2) no European was certain that Dakhla Oasis existed. If Edmonstone’s gamble paid off, and he didn’t end up a scorched pile of carrion picked desert bones, Britain, and adamantly not France, would be the first to celebrate the addition of a new patch of green to its maps of the Sahara Desert.

Travelling to the Oasis

As I lay in the comfort of my spacious, air-conditioned van, whizzing along a modern tarmac road, I imagined Edmonstone, with his two European companions, two Egyptian servants, interpreter, and twelve camels setting out into the relative unknown (presumably his Bedouin guides were less nervous), marching through the sands for thirteen hours a day.

Unlike the minor inconveniences I'd experienced in the oases, Edmonstone was truly travelling through a dangerous and wild frontier. Three years before his visit, four hundred raiders from Libya had plundered Dakhla, killing people and “carrying off much booty”. Two years afterwards, in 1821, the Pasha, Mohammed Ali, had sent troops to subdue the entire area. To reduce the risk of trouble, it was “strongly recommended” to Edmonstone that he wear Mamluk clothing; his “look” included “a coarse silk waistcoat with long open sleeves... an immense pair of cloth trousers, red slippers, and a turban of white muslin.” He also slung a Turkish sabre across his shoulder, hid a dagger beneath a shawl tied around his waist, and hung a brace of pistols under his left arm. Unlike Edmonstone, I was dressed in a faded blue t-shirt and a tatty pair of jeans. Desert travel has certainly changed.

Driving to Mut, Dakhla's capital, we passed farmers wearing wide straw hats, a local fashion noted by Egyptologist Herbert Winlock in 1908. The soil was pink, almost purple, and the gamoosa (water buffalo), so prevalent elsewhere in Egypt, had been replaced by cows. Squat pink-mud huts with palm roofs stood in the fields between villages of colourfully painted domed-houses. Along the way, we briefly stopped at the el-Muzzawwaqa tombs, a small splat of a hill, as if sculpted from mashed potato, pierced by Roman era tombs.

Edmonstone, the first to comment on this “insulated rock perforated with caverns”, observed scattered fragments of human remains littering the earth, remarking, “The inhabitants of the adjacent hamlet had stripped them in hopes of finding something valuable; and the jackals, which abound here, had completed the work of devastation.” He attempted to take some bones, but his guides threatened to abandon him if he did so. I too was shown a pit of assorted remains. They stared up at me as if saying, “wonderful, another gawker.”

The Medieval town of el-Qasr

At the north edge of Dakhla Oasis, our next stop, the medieval town of el-Qasr (“The Fortified Town”) came into view. After turning off the main tarmac road, and driving through a palm grove, the honeymooners, Mohammed and I left the van and rounded a modern white mosque. Splendidly wonky and sepia toned, the town, founded in the 12th century above a Roman fort, is an unusual sight: part-reconstructed, mostly abandoned, yet still occupied by a few hundred people.

It is a living village, protected by antiquities guards working for the Ministry of Antiquities. Every house exuded age from its cracked mud-brick pores, revealed by their shedding plaster. Many doorways were low to the ground, barely a couple of feet high; men in galabeyyas squatted beside them in the shade. Heavy doors sealed the town's various quarters, keeping its population – 4,000 strong in the 19th century – safe from bandits. It was like being led through a half-remembered dream of an Ottoman fantasy. Two hundred years earlier, upon “discovering” el-Qasr, Edmonstone had been less enchanted: “The only thing worthy of observation in the town is a strong sulphuric and chalybeate spring, which the people consider extremely sanative, and drink when left to settle for 24 hours in an earthen jar.”

As I followed the cuddling Spanish and the sweating, narrating Mohammed around the narrow streets, the imposing walls of multi-storey houses loomed, draping us in continuous and cooling shadow; the German explorer Gerhard Rohlfs, along with his entire team of 100, had briefly stayed in one of these houses during his desert explorations in 1874. Some houses displayed acacia lintels over their doorways with inscriptions informing passersby of the occupant, as well as the name of the artist who carved the inscription; the oldest dated to 1518. Presumably Rohlfs wasn't present long enough to commission his own lintel.

Our first stop was the mosque and mausoleum of Sheikh Nasr ed-Din, who was himself present yet absent, buried in a shrine, enveloped by a green sheet. It was surrounded on the walls by Quranic verses, which dipped in and out of niches with artistic abandon. Although the mosque had been rebuilt in the 19th century, its minaret maintains its 11th-12th century structure, though it too has undergone reconstruction; two layers of wooden beams jutting out from its body.

A madrassa (school) was next door. This had been renovated, and is still in use today. Conveniently for the medieval population, it also functioned as a meeting place, a courtroom, and as a place of punishment, all no doubt classified under “entertainment” by the townsfolk. To add to the ambiance, prisoners were once tied to a stake still standing beside the entrance, a definite warning to any would-be unruly school children.

In the maze of streets, Mohammed, clearly as geographically gifted as a globe, next led us to a house that incorporated ancient Egyptian temple blocks in its facade, some exhibiting figures and hieroglyphs; one block displayed the torso of a squatting baboon-shaped Thoth, his hands casually resting on his knees as if patiently waiting for his head and legs to return. Others were penetrated by long vertical scratches, made by people in antiquity collecting magical temple-powder. The now crumbling town also once had a mill (with an ox or donkey-powered mechanism), and an oil press.

The Roman temple at Deir el-Haggar

Our next stop was Deir el-Haggar – “The Monastery of Stone”. Edmonstone found this temple, “in tolerable preservation, though half filled with sand”, which he tried to clear, but quickly gave up. I found it with a motorbike parked inside the visitor centre; a dusty blue basket rested on its back, making its presence at least excusable as an ad-hoc storage space.
The walls within were salmon-pink and hung with information panels, which explained the temple's history and recent restoration work.

Despite taking the form of a typical ancient Egyptian temple (court, hypostyle hall, sanctuary), Deir el-Haggar was erected under Roman Emperor Nero (54-67), and decorated under his successors, Vespasian, Titus and Domitian in honour of the gods Amun, Mut and Khonsu. Stepping outside the visitor centre, I spied distant Roman tombs dug into the sandy hills; in the early first Millennium, farms and priests' houses stood on these now barren plains between the temple and the tombs. After “inheriting” Egypt, the Romans had actively encouraged Nile Valley Egyptians to relocate to Dakhla to produce cereals, oil and wine, meant to feed the imperial machine. Massive aqueducts were built near the temple, connecting springs and fields.

This prosperity wasn't to last, however. Early in the 5th century CE, massive sandstorms engulfed Dakhla's farms and temples, apparently while they still functioned. Deir el-Haggar was among those enveloped, causing its north wall to collapse and its ceilings to fall.

Abandoned to the elements, it became a ruin, ignored until Edmonstone's visit and only properly documented in 1908. And this wasn't the end of its woes; between 1965 and 1968, antiquities looters attacked the temple on nine occasions, cutting away 32 fragments of the best preserved parts of the walls. Only recently had Deir el-Haggar been reconstructed and its fabric properly protected. To combat the shifting sands, archaeologists had erected a palm-branch fence around its perimeter. Spare temple blocks, unplaced during the reconstruction, lay at its edge, awaiting some Lego savant. A guard's hut, a TV antenna optimistically protruding from its roof, symbolised newfound protection.

Over the next hour, I wandered through the temple, its columns rising to a vacant ceiling, some still bearing the remains of ancient plaster and paint. Broken pottery littered the floor. I spotted the word “Caesar” written in hieroglyphs within the royal cartouches. Small orange-beaked birds chirped in dusty holes. Bats hid in subtle cracks. They were rare signs of life in a now desolate place.

Outside, I found the names of Rohlfs' expedition members carved high on a column, dramatically illustrating the height of the sand in his day. The names of other early explorers can also be found at the temple, simultaneously presenting a compendium of desert exploration and incriminating the high class vandals. Among them were the names of both Edmonstone and Drovetti.

Following his return from the oases, Drovetti had written that his visit to Dakhla had occurred “toward the end of 1818”, contradicting Edmonstone's claim to have beaten him there, as he had only arrived on 16th February 1819. This created a controversy that was only settled one hundred years later, when a graffito at Deir el-Haggar, dated 26th February 1819, was found to bear the name Rosingana; as Rosingana had accompanied Drovetti to Dakhla, this provided the proof that the French Consul had indeed exaggerated the date of his arrival to bolster his claim of being the first European to visit the oasis. Dick Dastardly-like indeed!

Before leaving, in an overlooked gateway penetrating the temple's mud-brick temenos wall, I found images of gods, sacred animals and Greek inscriptions painted by the Roman-era devout. One of the earliest was a bearded image of the god Sarapammon-Hermes, upon which later worshippers had added pictures of a ram – symbol of Amun-Re – and a Thoth baboon, along with four floral wreaths with looped ends. At first, I was moved by the presence of these crudely painted images of devotion and the darkened patches of plaster left by the touch of pious, ancient worshippers. Then I realised that Sarapammon-Hermes, now overlaid with floral wreaths protruding from either side of his torso, appeared like the robot from Lost in Space.

It was time to move on.